# Statistic

**Question #1**

Using the SPSS File 2, there are various number of variables with different measurement levels. You are asked to formulate 3 research questions from the data set and each research question applies a specific statistical test.

1. Chi-square

2. Correlation

3. Logistic Regression

(**1.5 Marks)**

**Question #2**

A convenience sample of 114 patients with hypertension were asked whether they are living with only hypertension or with hypertension and other chronic diseases. The researcher was interested in comparing results for BMId (coded as 0=>29.9 and 1= <29.9). The main question was: is there an association between comorbidity and BMI? For all statements below, assume 2-tailed test and alpha= .05.

**1.** Use the data set (SPSS File 1) and perform the six-steps process

**2.** Interpret the X2. Report in APA format, include the effect size (Phi) **if significant, and write a brief interpretation statement about the proportion and results.**

**(5 Marks)**

**Question #3**

Accordingly, the concept of patient activation refers to an individual’s willingness to perform a task. This concept was measured by the Patient Activation Measure (higher scores indicate higher activation levels). Hypertension disease knowledge was measured by the Hypertension Level Scale (higher scores indicate adequate knowledge of the disease). The participants were asked to rate from 0-100 the quality of healthcare provisions. After collecting the data, the researcher was interested in examining the association between certain variables, such as patient activation (PAM13, ratio level), quality of healthcare provisions (providpat, ratio level), and HTN disease knowledge (HKLscale, ratio level).

**(5 Marks)**

1. Use the data set (SPSS File 1) and perform the six-steps process to find out any relationship between these variables.

2. Write an interpretation about your results.

**Question #4**

Depression is a common problem among older adults. In research, the common instrument has been used to measure levels of depression is Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A score of 24 or greater is considered a higher risk of depression while a score of 15 or less is a low risk of depression. Numerous factors contribute to the development of depression among older adults. A researcher proposed lower levels of income (income, ratio level) and physical function (sf12phys ratio level) predict higher risks of depression (cesd, ratio level).

**(6 Marks)**

1. Use the SPSS File 2 and perform six steps-process (ignore the third step) to examine if income and physical function influence depression.

2. Write an interpretation about your results and draw a model.

**Question #5**

Blood Pressure Target

1= achieving blood pressure target (<140/90)

0= not achieving blood pressure target (>=140/90)

Table 1: Logistic Regression for blood pressure target (n=245) and assume that a significant level was set at .05.

Odds Ratio

95%

Confidence Interval

p-value

Hypertension disease knowledge

1.36

1.09-1.691

.03

Patient activation

1.26

1.08 – 1.48

.36

Adherence to HTN treatment plans

.98

.97 – 1.35

.001

Health Literacy

1.017

0.937 – 1.017

.69

Based on the Table 1:

1. Interpret the odds ratio (only significant)

2. Justify why some of the variables were not significant.

**(2.5 Marks)**