Adapting to the Digital Revolution essay paper

Adapting to the Digital Revolution essay paper



Using the New York Times case, use ALL the steps of the Wertheim Problem Solving Model to identify a problem to be solved and evaluate potential alternative actions before suggesting an optimal solution for the company.

The New York Times: Adapting to the Digital Revolution

On January 1, 2018, 37‐year‐old A.G. Sulzberger succeeded his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, as chairman of the New York Times Company (NYT). He is the sixth member of the Ochs/Sulzberger family to lead the newspaper since it was purchased by Adolph Ochs in 1896.

Yet, this apparent reverence for family tradition was not matched by conservatism in the company’s strategy and operational management. Indeed, A.G. Sulzberger was the primary architect of the digital strategy that had shaken the “Gray Lady”—as the Times was affectionately known—to her very foundations.

In 2012, the prospects for the New York Times Company (NYT) were bleak. In common with most of the world’s newspaper companies, revenues were in steep decline and the company was losing money. Most commentators were pessimistic about the company’s future. Henry Blodget of Business Insider predicted a continuing decline in the company’s revenues as news readership and advertising moved online.1 Eric Jackson of Ironfire Capital LLC predicted that declining advertising revenues, rising pension costs, and limits on further cuts in operating costs, would mean that the NYT would be unable to continue as a standalone business.2

For over a decade, the NYT had been experimenting with different online business models, while at the same time selling assets and cutting costs. However, growth in revenues from digital advertising had failed to cover the shrinking revenues from print advertising, while cost cutting was limited by NYT’s commitment to comprehensive, high‐quality journalism.

The appointment of Mark Thompson, formerly director‐general of the British Broadcasting Corporation, as CEO at the end of 2012 marked the beginning of a profound strategic shift. In May 2014, a working party chaired by A.G. Sulzberger issued a report titled “Innovation,” which provided a searing and penetrating analysis of the NYT’s weaknesses in adapting to the new world of digital media.3 The report created a firestorm both within the NYT and in the newspaper industry more widely and was the trigger for a total overhaul of the company’s strategy.

In 2017, the NYT had its “best revenue growth in many years, driven by strong digital subscription revenues, which increased by over $100 million year‐over‐year.”4 The turnaround was reflected in the NYT’s share price, which more than doubled in the two years leading up to March 2018 (see Figure 1).

FIGURE 1 New York Times Company share price January 2000–March 2018

Source: Macrotrends.

However, as A.G. Sulzberger prepared for his first annual shareholders’ meeting as board chairman, he wondered about the sustainability of the NYT’s upturn in performance. Had the NYT finally cracked the problem of how to reconcile its traditional commitment to quality journalism with the requirements of the digital age, or did the massive rise in the number of digital subscriptions simple reflect the “Trump bump”—the quest for unbiased, authoritative journalism in a time when the current US President was challenging the norms of objectivity and truth?

The US Newspaper Industry

The US newspaper industry—like that of most other countries—had been in decline for over two decades. The reason was competition from online media, both for news readership and for advertising. Although print newspapers had diversified into online news provision, they had encountered powerful competition in this field from other suppliers of digital news content—including online newspapers such as the Huffington PostDaily Beast, and BuzzFeed—as well as TV news suppliers with their own websites (ABC, CNN, and Fox), and online news aggregators such as Google News and LexisNexis. Table 1 shows the leading US news websites. The ability of all news websites to generate advertising revenues was constrained by the dominance of Google and Facebook over online advertising and by the powerful mobile platform owners—notably Apple and Google (Android). As a result, the decline in print readership (Figure 2) translated into an even steeper decline in advertising revenues for printed newspapers (Figure 3), which was only partly compensated for by the shift from print to digital advertising (Figure 4).

TABLE 1Leading US news websites by number of unique visitors for 2017 (in millions)Adapting to the Digital Revolution essay paper

Website 2017 2015
Yahoo News 128 128
Google News 102  82
Huffington Post 110  84
CNN Network 101 102
USA Today  78  79
BuzzFeed  73  78
The New York Times  70  57
Fox News  65  57
NBC News  63 101
Mail Online  53  51
Washington Post  47  40
Guardian  42  36


FIGURE 2 Average daily circulation of newspapers in the US, 1940–2017

FIGURE 3 Annual revenues of US newspapers, 1970–2017 ($ millions)

FIGURE 4 Digital advertising revenue as a percentage of total US newspaper advertising, 2009–2017

The shift from print to online readership favored both national and international newspapers at the expense of the vast majority of US newspapers, which served local markets—individual cities and metropolitan regions. Only three newspapers could claim to be national (or even international) in their distribution: USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the New York Times. Table 2 shows the print circulations of the largest US newspapers.


TABLE 2Print circulation of leading US newspapers

Source: Alliance for Audited Media.

2015 2013
Wall Street Journal 1064 1481
New York Times  528  731
Los Angeles Times  328  433
Washington Post  330  431
USA Today  299 1424
Chicago Tribune  266  368
New York Post  245  300
New York Daily News  228  360
Newsday  217  266
Minneapolis Star Tribune  184  228
Houston Chronicle  169  231
Arizona Republic  164  286
Denver Post  156  214
Cleveland Plain Dealer  153  216
Newark Star‐Ledger  144  180
Tampa Bay Times  141  241
Boston Globe  140  172
Philadelphia Inquirer  138  185
Chicago Sun‐Times  118  185


For newspapers to survive, they needed to reduce costs to match their shrinking revenues. Independent news gathering had been the major casualty—newsroom staffs had been cut drastically and most newspapers relied upon agencies such as Reuters, Associated Press, and Agence France‐Presse for their news content. Alternatively, newspapers could seek out a billionaire “sugar daddy”: following Jeff Bezos’s purchase of the Washington Post, Warren Buffet bought the Omaha World‐Herald, and Patrick Soon acquired the Los Angeles Times.

Decline and Refocusing

Between 1996 and the end of 2017, strategic leadership of the NYT was exercised by its chairman, Arthur Sulzberger Jr. At the heart of his strategy was a commitment to delivering the highest standards of journalism, while recognizing that the Times could not restrict itself to print:

“[A] decade from now and a century from now, the New York Times will still be the leader in its field of quality journalism, regardless of how it is distributed. These plans entail our moving from a strategy focused on the specific products we produce to one built around our audience—a quality audience strategy. Our goal is to know our audience better than anyone else; to meet their informational and transactional needs—by ourselves where we can; in partnership with others when necessary; and to serve them in print and digitally, continuously and on‐demand.”5

This strategy required focusing upon a single title: the New York Times. Between 2007 and 2013, NYT sold nine local television stations, its WQXR radio station, the Regional Media Group of 16 local newspapers, and the Boston Globe, which was sold for 93% less than the $1.1 billion the NYT had paid for it in 1993. The Paris‐published International Herald Tribune became the global edition of the New York Times.

This focusing upon the Times reflected the unique status of the newspaper in terms of its national and international distribution and unrivalled reputation for journalism. Times’ journalists had earned more than twice as many Pulitzer prizes as any other newspaper. Its columnists, including Nicholas Kristof, Thomas Friedman, Maureen Dowd, and Nobel‐Prize‐winning economist Paul Krugman, were leading commentators on current issues.

Meanwhile, the NYT’s revenues continued the decline that had commenced in 2005 when revenues had peaked at $3.4 billion. Reduced print sales of newspapers were one factor, but a much bigger one was the collapse of advertising revenues. Table 3 shows the NYT’s revenues. Cost economies were sought through eliminating duplication (e.g., moving to a single printing plant), closing loss‐making businesses, outsourcing a wide range of functions, and eliminating jobs. Table 4 shows overall financial performance.



TABLE 3The New York Times Company’s revenues, 2009–2017

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Total revenues 1676 1555 1579 1589 1577 1595 2323 2394 2440
of which
—Advertisinga  559  581  639  662  667  712 1222 1300 1336
—Subscriptionb 1008  881  852  837  824  795  942  932  937
  of which
  —Digital only  340  233  199  169  149  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a
—Otherc  109   94   89   89   86   88  160  162  168

aAdvertising revenues were 57% print and 43% digital in 2017. In 2014, the corresponding proportions were 73% and 27%.

bCompany renamed as “subscription revenues.” Subscription revenues (previously called “circulation revenues”) are revenues from subscriptions to print and digital products and single‐copy and bulk sales of print products (which represent approximately 10% of these revenues).

cPrincipally syndication revenues.

TABLE 4New York Times Company, Inc.: Selected financial data for 2010–2017

Source: New York Times Company, Inc. 10‐K reports.

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
Revenues 1676 1555 1579 1589 1577 1595 2323 2393
Operating costs 1488 1411 1393 1484 1412 1441 2093 2137
Operating profit 112 102 137 92 156 104 57 23
Interest expense, net 20 35 36 54 58 63 85 85
Post‐tax income from continuing operations 7 26 63 33 57 164 (40.2) 109
Post‐tax income from discontinued operations (1) (2) (1.1) 7.9 (27.9)
Net income 4 29 63 33 65 136 (40) 109
Property, plant, and equipment 640 597 632 666 713 773 1085 1157
Total assets 2100 2185 2418 2566 2573 2807 2883 3286
Total debt and lease obligations 250 247 431 650 683 697 698 996
Stockholders’ equity 897 848 827 726 843 662 506 656
ROE (%) 0.5 3.5 8.1 4.2 8.6 23.2 (6.9) 17.3
Debt/equity ratio 0.22 0.23 0.34 0.89 0.81 1.05 1.38 1.52
Operating margin (%) 8.7 6.5 8.6 5.8 9.9 6.5 2.4 1.0
Current assets to current liabilities 1.80 2.00 1.53 1.90 3.36 2.45 1.46 1.7
Employees (full‐time equivalent) 3789 3710 3560 3588 3529 5363 7273 7414

Searching for an Online Business Model

The NYT was quick to recognize the potential—and the threat—of the Internet. The website launched in 1996 focused upon adapting content from the print edition for Web display. It was free to access and aimed to attract paid advertising.

In 1999, New York Times Digital was established to manage the websites of the TimesGlobe, and International Herald Tribune and to launch other online initiatives. It was an independent business unit within NYT in the belief that, if NYT was to be a serious player in cyberspace, it needed to have the people, systems, and culture of a start‐up rather than of a century‐old newspaper.

Despite success in attracting online visitors, digital advertising revenues were disappointing, and executives increasingly recognized the need to charge users. The first online subscription, launched in 2005, was Times Select, which charged an annual $49.95 fee for premium content and access to online archives. It generated a mere $10 million a year and was discontinued in 2007. Then in March 2011, NYT introduced its “metered access” model, which allowed Web visitors free access to a limited number of articles each month, after which a paid subscription was required. By the end of 2011, there were 390,000 paid digital subscribers to subscription packages and, by the end of 2014, there were 910,000 digital‐only subscribers.

Although digital advertising revenues grew—by 2014, digital accounted for 27% of NYT’s advertising revenues—this growth failed to offset declining revenues from print advertising. Moreover, despite huge improvements in the content and accessibility of, it was the digital‐only upstarts that were leaders in innovation and user features.

Some industry observers saw the hybrid model—print and digital editions—as doomed to failure. Rick Wartzman, Director of the Drucker Institute, argued: “Dead‐tree editions must immediately yield to all‐internet operations. The presses need to stop forever, with the delivery trucks shunted off to the scrapyard.” He pointed to the Huffington Post (owned by AOL) as the model for an online newspaper.6 Eric Schmidt, chairman of Google, suggested that users would only be willing to pay for unique content, as most news was available from multiple online sources. For online newspapers to generate adequate advertising revenues, they needed to offer targeted advertising linked to customized content—for this, Google was an essential partner for the newspaper companies.7

The 2014 Innovation Report

One of the main initiatives of the incoming CEO, Mark Thompson, was to initiate a fundamental rethink of NYT’s digital strategy. In May 2014, a committee headed by A.G. Sulzberger delivered a report entitled “Innovation” that provided a wrenching diagnosis of NYT’s weaknesses in “the art and science of getting our journalism to readers.”

Among the many challenges the report identified were as follows:

  • Creating a fully digital newsroom. With Jeff Bezos funding advanced technological development at the Washington Post, BuzzFeed and Yahoo increasing their investments in news gathering and delivery, and new entrants such as Flipboard and First Look Media entering the business—NYT was being left behind. The report noted: “The newsroom has historically reacted defensively by watering down or blocking changes, prompting a phrase that echoes almost daily around the business side: ‘The newsroom would never allow that.’”8
  • Fewer and fewer readers were accessing the Times through the home page. The NYT needed to take its journalism to the reader: at NYT “the story is done when you hit publish. At the Huffington Post, the article begins its life when you hit publish.”9 Taking NYT journalism to readers’ “digital doorsteps” would require eliminating the NYT’s traditional division between the news side and the business side of the newspaper.
  • Exploiting the archive: “We have an archive of 14,723,933 articles extending back to 1851 that can be resurfaced in useful or timely ways. Yet we rarely think to mine our archive, largely because we are so focused on news and new features.”10
  • Experimentation—especially in finding new ways of packaging existing content that would be conducive to sharing on social networks.
  • Personalization: “using technology to ensure that the right stories are reaching the right readers in the right places and the right times. For example, letting you know when you are walking past a restaurant we have just reviewed.”11
  • User‐generated content. The Times‘ audience is its “most underutilized resource. We can count the world’s best‐informed and most influential people among our readers. And we have a platform to which many of them would be willing and honored to contribute.”12

The report was intended for a handful of senior managers; however, the leak of the report to BuzzFeed triggered an explosion of anguish and debate within the company. Harvard’s Nieman Lab reported: “One [NYT employee] admitted crying while reading it because it surfaced so many issues about Times culture that digital types have been struggling to overcome for years.”13 For A.G. Sulzberger the leak was “… a moment of panic … suddenly it felt like our dirty laundry was being aired.” Yet, within days, the report had become a rallying cry: “You couldn’t read that report and think that the status quo was an option.”14Adapting to the Digital Revolution essay paper

The Innovation Report was a prelude to a flurry of top management and organizational changes. A week after the distribution of the report, the executive editor of the Times, Jill Abramson, was fired. She was replaced by the Times‘ managing editor Dean Baquet. One factor in her dismissal was her perceived opposition to the greater integration of the news and business sides of the NYT—a key objective of CEO Thompson, but contrary to the long tradition of the independence of the Times‘ journalism. As A.G. Sulzberger later explained: “… the most important thing is to have real strong protections around the editorial independence of our newsroom,” but the separation of the news and the business sides of the newspaper had created a barrier to change. “We regarded the members of our technology team and product team as being on the business side … the folks who were building our website weren’t able to talk to the people who were filling the website with great journalism each day.”15

Jill Abramson’s dismissal was followed by the elimination of about 100 positions in the company’s newsroom: “the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever left the New York Times in a single day,” according to reporter David Dunlap.16 Under Dean Baquet, the newsroom leadership was reorganized around four deputy editors. The major emphasis was on promoting and bringing in talent that could propel the Times‘ digital efforts—especially within mobile communication. Essential to this effort was the integration of journalism and technology. According to Clifford Levy, who won two Pulitzers at the Times before being promoted to the assistant managing editor overseeing digital platforms: “Working hour by hour, day by day, with software developers and designers and product managers—to me that was a real revolution, a kind of epiphany… This is standard operating procedure in Silicon Valley, but it was radical here.”17

Our Path Forward

Having established a consensus around the imperative of a digital future for the Times, it was easier to articulate a longer‐term strategy for the company. In October 2015, the top management team released “Our Path Forward,” a public document intended “to share our challenges, our progress and our plans for moving forward.”18 At the foundation of the NYT’s strategy was the principle of “offering content and products worth paying for,” which put quality journalism at the heart of NYT’s strategy and established that NYT’s basic revenue model was user fees. If producing quality content was the dominant priority, it needed to be financed. To do this, the company set the goal of doubling its digital revenues over the next five years to more than $800 million—which in turn meant more than doubling the number of digital readers, most of whom would be accessing news content on their phones and mobile devices.

Expanding the number of users and building a revenue‐generating relationship with users required the following:

  • We will continue to lead the industry in creating the best original journalism and storytelling.” This involved not only maintaining NYT’s corps of journalists but also infusing them with the technical and design skills needed to deploy new storytelling tools. Initiatives included increased emphasis on visuals, including videos, and increased customization to allow fully personalized content delivery.
  • We will continue to develop new audiences and grow the Times as an international institution.” The international expansion offered a huge potential for subscriber growth: this strategy required both greater global integration and greater customization to meet the needs of specific audiences in different countries.
  • We will improve the customer experience for our readers, making it easier to form and deepen a relationship with the Times.” The goal was to make the Times an essential part of its readers’ lives. This required that: “Every moment in the reader’s journey, from visiting for the first time to registering as a user to becoming a lifelong subscriber, must be frictionless, intuitive, and responsive. To support this goal, we will improve each stage of the experience.”
  • We will continue to grow digital advertising by creating compelling, integrated ad experiences that match the quality and innovation of the Times.”
  • We will continue providing the best newspaper experience for our print readers and advertisers, while carefully shifting time and energy to our digital platforms.

Digital InitiativeAdapting to the Digital Revolution essay papers

These aspirations were reflected in a host of digitally based new initiatives launched between 2014 and 2017. Behind these initiatives was the Beta Group—an in‐house digital development group housed on the 9th floor of the NYT’s building. Most of the new products were apps for mobile platforms. These included NYT Now, a mobile app aimed at younger readers, and NYT Cooking, a hugely successful mobile app allowing access to the Times’ library of over 17,000 recipes, which became the model for additional apps covering real estate, crosswords, health and fitness, and TV and movie reviews. In 2015, NYT launched a virtual reality app. Emailed newsletters were another means by which NYT communicated with users. By mid‐2017, it had 50 different newsletters with 13 million subscribers. Wirecutter, acquired in 2016, was another website and mobile app providing reviews of consumer products.

T Brand Studio, was established in 2014 to create “native advertising”—stories appearing on NYT websites and apps that were sponsored by advertisers. One of the first of these paid posts was an article on women prison inmates, accompanied by video interviews with several of them, designed to generate interest in Netflix’s Orange is the New Black series. T Brand Studio developed into a fully‐fledged marketing and creative services agency—partly through acquiring Hello Society, a leader in influencer marketing, and Fake Love, an experiential design studio with a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality.

Looking to the Future

By 2018, the NYT had made substantial progress in implementing a clearly articulated strategy based upon an intelligible vision for the future and a realistic understanding of the challenges it faced. The decline in its revenues had been halted and its presence in digital media transformed.

Yet still doubts remained. The dominance in digital media of Google and Facebook and the power exerted by the other digital giants—Apple, Amazon, Microsoft, and Netflix—placed all digital media companies in a subservient position, while the pace of technological change gave born‐digital upstarts an advantage over the former giants of print media. This was especially apparent in digital advertising revenues whose growth since 2014 had been modest.

A report by a NYT newsroom working party in early 2017, “Journalism that Stands Apart,” made it clear that NYT still had far to go: “For all the progress we have made, we still have not built a digital business large enough on its own to support a newsroom that can fulfill our ambitions,” the report’s authors wrote, and “too often, digital progress has been accomplished through workarounds … our work too often reflects conventions built up over many decades, when we spoke to readers once a day.”19

Among the report’s criticisms were:

Too many stories that “lack significant impact or audience” or were “little different from what can be found in the freely available competition.”

Stories “dominated by long strings of text” because reporters “lack the proper training to embed visuals contextually.”

The need for greater engagement by readers through “email newsletters, alerts, FAQs, scoreboards, audio, video, and forms yet to be invented.”

The success of NYT’s Cooking and Watching (TV and movie reviews) apps needs to be extended with “more big digital bets” in features—especially features that are designed to provide useful guidance to readers (as The Wirecutter and Smarter Living).

The need for better organization around themes of reader interest: “High‐priority coverage areas are spread across multiple desks … Our health care coverage, for example, spans five departments and multiple print sections.”

The needs to improve hiring and training processes to ensure “the right mix of skills in the newsroom to carry about the ambitious plan for change.”

“Lack of clarity over who are we writing for”. The success of sections like Cooking and Well is because they were designed with specific audiences and story forms in mind. Other parts of the Times are unclear who their target audience is. Every section should specify what the team will cover, the target audience, how that audience will experience the section’s reporting, and what kinds of skills the group will need.

Even if the NYT could achieve the same level of comfort and flexibility with the world of digital media as its “digitally native” competitors such as BuzzFeed, Vox, Mashable and Vice Media, the financial performance of these companies gave cause for concern. During 2017, all the on‐line news providers struggled to grow revenues.20 Although the NYT’s user subscription‐based business model provided insulation from the slim returns to content providers from digital advertising, this placed even greater weight on the imperative of generating new subscriptions.

If NYT were to be unable to generate the revenues needed to finance the high costs of high‐quality, global journalism, would it need to explore alternative business models? One possibility was that NYT could become a social enterprise: either explicitly, through enlisting charitable support or establishing an endowment that could support news gathering and analysis, or implicitly, through seeking a wealthy backer (as in the case of the Washington Post with Jeff Bezos).21 Alternatively, should NYT view itself less in the news business and more in the intelligence business, using its news gathering and analytical capabilities to supply customized intelligence to corporations and government agencies?


* This case was prepared by Robert M. Grant. ©2019 Robert M. Grant.

  1. “The Incredible Shrinking New York Times,” Business Insider (February 4, 2012).
  2. “End Game of the New York Times,” Ironfire Capital LLC (April 5, 2012).
  3.‐leaked‐new‐york‐times‐innovation‐report‐is‐one‐of‐the‐key‐documents‐of‐this‐media‐age/. Accessed March 11, 2018.
  4. Press Release: 2017 Fourth‐Quarter and Full‐Year Results, The New York Times Company (February 8, 2018).
  5. New York Times Company, Inc., annual meeting of stockholders (April 23, 2009).
  6. “Out with the Dead Wood for Newspapers,” Business Week (March 10, 2009).
  7. “View from the Top: Eric Schmidt of Google,” Financial Times (May 21, 2009).
  8. New York Times Innovation Report (May 2014): 78
  9. Ibid: 24.
  10. Ibid.: 28.
  11. Ibid.: 37.
  12. Ibid.: 49.
  13.‐leaked‐new‐york‐times‐innovation‐report‐is‐one‐of‐the‐key‐documents‐of‐this‐media‐age/. Accessed March 10, 2018.
  14.‐york‐times‐digital‐journalism/. Accessed March 10, 2018.
  15. A Conversation with A. G. Sulzberger, the New Leader of the New York Times,” The New Yorker (December 2017).
  16. “In One Day, The Times Lost a World of Knowledge” Times Insider (December 16, 2014),‐insider/2014/12/16/1925‐in‐one‐day‐the‐times‐lost‐a‐world‐of‐knowledge/?_r=1. Accessed July 20, 2015.
  17.‐york‐times‐digital‐journalism/. Accessed March 10, 2018.
  18.‐content/uploads/Our‐Path‐Forward.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2018.
  19. “Journalism that Stands Apart: The Report of the 2020 Group” (New York Times Company, January 2017).
  20. “Digital News Organizations: Buzz Kill,” Economist (December 2, 2017).
  21. See, for example, P. M. Abernathy, “A Nonprofit Model for the New York Times?” Duke Conference on Nonprofit Media (May 4–5, 2009).Adapting to the Digital Revolution essay paper

world’s gross domestic product essay paper

world’s gross domestic product essay paper


In this weeks discussion board I will explain the advantage of the the forum and what it has developed overtime for a better way to analyze the world’s gross domestic product (GPD). Based on the World Economic Forum (WEF) its key to successly move forward in the future is to combine , survive by staying relevant and up to date lastly by having an solution. For example, WEF states to develop ways of combining communities so that together they are much more than the sum of their parts . Next they plan to survive and thrive the world’s leading corporations this way they will be able to learn from the next generation . Then the world economic forum states the solutions to the problems of the future cannot be found without understanding the motivations of global business and how it can leverage them for change (Klaus Schwab . Founder and Executive chairman). Whereas although the world’s gross domestic product is the total of all value added and created in an economy the WEF incorporates all of what the GPD offers but on a wider bases and more evolved. Being that the world is way more advanced than how it was in the past and WEF ability to incorporate as well as keep track of the worlds resources so easily is what makes it so’s gross domestic product essay paper


The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) defined GDP as the value of the goods and services produced by the nation’s economy less the value of the goods and services used up in production. GDP is also equal to the sum of personal consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports of goods and services, and government consumption expenditures and gross investment.

The new indicators developed by the Forum outperform GDP in three ways: they are more comprehensive, more adaptable to change, and more transparent.

To begin with, the indicators used by the Forum are more comprehensive than GDP. Only the value of final products and services produced inside a country’s boundaries is captured by GDP. It excludes the value of intermediary products and services, as well as non-market activities such as unpaid household labor. All these factors are captured by the Forum’s metrics, providing a more comprehensive view of economic activity.

Second, the metrics used by the Forum are more adaptable to change. GDP is a lagging indicator, which means it only records economic activity that has already occurred. The Forum’s indicators, on the other hand, are leading indicators, capturing upcoming economic activity. Since a result, the Forum’s indicators are more relevant for policymakers, as they may assist them in anticipating and responding to economic developments.

Third, the measurements used by the Forum are more transparent than GDP. GDP is estimated using complicated statistical procedures, and the data that underpins it is often unavailable to the public. The measurements used by the Forum, on the other hand, are derived using straightforward, transparent techniques, and the data that underpins them is open to the public. As a result, the Forum’s metrics are more accessible to the broader public and beneficial for informing public discourse.


I hope you all had a good weekend it is finally getting hot in northern WI. Memorial weekend as the professor spoke of in the announcements as well as some of you in your discussion post is a day in which we remember those who have given the ultimate sacrifice for our freedom. It hits very close for me, and I am grateful everyday to be back stateside. Through certain experience in life, you truly learn to appreciate the little things. GDP is and outdated system as is much of our current economic, legal, and educational systems with the fast advancement of technology and natural growth of humanity. I am not one for mandated regulations which naturally constricts freedoms, however the WEF is going in the right direction with this new system’s gross domestic product essay paper

Much like a satellite in space can survey the weather across an entire continent so can the GDP give an overall picture of the state of the economy (Landefield, 2000). In truth the GDP is still a relevant tool that with a new adjustment as presented in my reference from the BEA, could continue to help us understand and grow our economy moving forward. With every technological advancement, million-dollar idea, or even natural disaster the GDP must be recalculated to account for new variables adjusting to that certain period and future predictions.

Prosperity would allow for more concise predictions towards wealth inequality and social mobility allowing for a significant adjustment in this field. As of now this section though related to GDP is given different meaning and is not always analyzed correctly. It is difficult to account for small numbers in the GDP being such a large data set. As of now we follow the golden rule that predictions can be found in larger statistics which can be planned for. With a specific dimension of prosperity, we could better regulate the help need from low-income families to new business to stimulate new market growth in certain areas.

Planet Dimension would open a whole new area within our economy. Though already regulated by the Current GDP, this would be the foundation to better assist world economies towards a cleaner and greener tomorrow. This should not be a mandated focus approach on switching to electric cars. Through economic analyzes we could develop a plan to coordinate globally economic growth through finding new energy means and lowering emissions. Holding business and whole countries accountable to do their part in keeping our planet healthy. Perhaps a heavy fine to the business that doesn’t abide that must be paid back to economy for future expenditures related to the incident?

The biggest one I support out of the four dimensions is People. Adequate access to public education and health is vital to economic growth. You don’t need to worry about the economy if there is no one to participate in it. Of the four dimensions this one co-exist with all and can have a significant impact. The current GDP foundation focuses more on number aspect rather than the person. Any business or organization that treats employees as numbers and not people feel the effects in long run. With this dimension we could ensure decision are made for the future that have a positive effect on future generations to come and continue to grow our’s gross domestic product essay paper

gastroenteritis essay paper

gastroenteritis essay paper


Urinary Function:
Mr. J.R. is a 73-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis and possible renal injury. The patient’s chief complaints are fever, nausea with vomiting and diarrhea for 48 hours, weakness, dizziness, and a bothersome metallic taste in the mouth. The patient is pale and sweaty. He had been well until two days ago, when he began to experience severe nausea several hours after eating two burritos for supper. The burritos had been ordered from a local fast-food restaurant. The nausea persisted and he vomited twice with some relief. As the evening progressed, he continued to feel “very bad” and took some Pepto-Bismol to help settle his stomach. Soon thereafter, he began to feel achy and warm. His temperature at the time was 100. 5°F. He has continued to experience nausea, vomiting, and a fever. He has not been able to tolerate any solid foods or liquids. Since yesterday, he has had 5–6 watery bowel movements. He has not noticed any blood in the stools. His wife brought him to the ER because he was becoming weak and dizzy when he tried to stand up. His wife denies any recent travel, use of antibiotics, laxatives, or excessive caffeine, or that her husband has an eating disorder.gastroenteritis essay paper

  1. The attending physician is thinking that Mr. J.R. has developed an Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Analyzing the case presented name the possible types of Acute Kidney Injury. Link the clinical manifestations described to the different types of Acute Kidney injury.
  2. Create a list of risk factors the patient might have and explain why.
  3. Unfortunately, the damage on J.R. kidney became irreversible and he is now diagnosed with Chronic kidney disease. Please describe the complications that the patient might have on his Hematologic system (Coagulopathy and Anemia) and the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved.gastroenteritis essay paper

Reproductive Function:
Ms. P.C. is a 19-year-old white female who reports a 2-day history of lower abdominal pain, nausea, emesis and a heavy, malodorous vaginal discharge. She states that she is single, heterosexual, and that she has been sexually active with only one partner for the past eight months. She has no previous history of genitourinary infections or sexually transmitted diseases. She denies IV drug use. Her LMP ended three days ago. Her last intercourse (vaginal) was eight days ago and she states that they did not use a condom. She admits to unprotected sex “every once in a while.” She noted an abnormal vaginal discharge yesterday and she describes it as “thick, greenish-yellow in color, and very smelly.” She denies both oral and rectal intercourse. She does not know if her partner has had a recent genitourinary tract infection, “because he has been away on business for five days.
Microscopic Examination of Vaginal Discharge
(-) yeast or hyphae
(-) flagellated microbes
(+) white blood cells
(+) gram-negative intracellular diplococci

Case Study Questions

  1. According to the case presented, including the clinical manifestations and microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge, what is the most probably diagnosis for Ms. P.C.? Support your answer and explain why you get to that diagnosis.
  2. Based on the vaginal discharged described and the microscopic examination of the sample could you suggest which would be the microorganism involved?
  3. Name the criteria you would use to recommend hospitalization for this patient

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words per case study, formatted and cited in current APA 7 edition style with support from at least 3 academic sources (books or journal articles from 2017 up to now). No websites as references allowed. Include doi, page numbers, etc. Plagiarism must be less than 10%gastroenteritis essay paper

Pulmonary Function essay paper

Pulmonary Function essay paper


Pulmonary Function:
D.R. is a 27-year-old man, who presents to the nurse practitioner at the Family Care Clinic complaining of increasing SOB, wheezing, fatigue, cough, stuffy nose, watery eyes, and postnasal drainage—all of which began four days ago. Three days ago, he began monitoring his peak flow rates several times a day. His peak flow rates have ranged from 65-70% of his regular baseline with nighttime symptoms for 3 nights on the last week and often have been at the lower limit of that range in the morning. Three days ago, he also began to self-treat with frequent albuterol nebulizer therapy. He reports that usually his albuterol inhaler provides him with relief from his asthma symptoms, but this is no longer enough treatment for this asthmatic episode.Pulmonary Function essay paper

  1. According to the case study information, how would you classify the severity of D.R. asthma attack
  2. Name the most common triggers for asthma in any given patients and specify in your answer which ones you consider applied to D.R. on the case study.
  3. Based on your knowledge and your research, please explain the factors that might be the etiology of D.R. being an asthmatic patient.

Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Homeostasis:
Ms. Brown is a 70-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus who has been too ill to get out of bed for 2 days. She has had a severe cough and has been unable to eat or drink during this time. On admission, her laboratory values show the following:

  • Serum glucose 412 mg/dL
  • Serum sodium (Na+) 156 mEq/L
  • Serum potassium (K+) 5.6 mEq/L
  • Serum chloride (Cl–) 115 mEq/L
  • Arterial blood gases (ABGs): pH 7.30; PaCO2 32 mmHg; PaO2 70 mmHg; HCO3– 20 mEq/L
  1. Based on Ms. Brown admission’s laboratory values, could you determine what type of water and electrolyte imbalance does she has
  2. Describe the signs and symptoms to the different types of water imbalance and described clinical manifestation she might exhibit with the potassium level she has.Pulmonary Function essay paper
  3. In the specific case presented which would be the most appropriate treatment for Ms. Brown and why
  4. What the ABGs from Ms. Brown indicate regarding her acid-base imbalance
  5. Based on your readings and your research define and describe Anion Gaps and its clinical significance.

Submission Instructions:

  • You must complete both case studies without adding the whole questions as a heading, just main terms so plagiarism score does not go up.
  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words per case study (2 pages), formatted and cited in current APA style 7 edition with support from at least 3 academic sources that must be books or journal articles from 2017 up to now. No websites allowed for references. include doi, page numbers, etc. Plagiarism must be less than 10%.Pulmonary Function essay paper

Education essay paper

Education essay paper



How Free Should Campus Speech Be?


In 1994, the well-known literary critic and legal scholar Stanley Fish published a controversial book, There’s No Such Thing as Free Speech . . . And It’s a Good Thing Too. Fish argued that the notion that Americans could or should be able to say anything they like anytime and anyplace was, in fact, deeply flawed—even on college campuses, where the idea of free and open debate has long been held as close to sacred. The selections in this chapter provide strong evidence that the issues that concerned Fish still dominate campus discussions today even though the terms in which those debates are framed have shifted.


The next three selections treat the topic of microaggressions. The first visual argument is a poster designed by a consulting firm to help students and employees in businesses appreciate what microaggressions are and why they are harmful. The second is a cartoon demonstrating the way that speakers’ assumptions and presuppositions can result in questions or comments that listeners may find offensive. Next, psychologist Scott Lilienfeld contends that although there should be no denying the reality of prejudice in American society, he has grave concerns about the social science research used in support of the campus programs seeking to contain microaggressions.


Sarah Brown considers the roles that athletes increasingly play as activists for social causes on campus, from taking a knee to making politically charged comments to threatening to boycott playoff games. Such actions by individuals, groups of athletes, or entire teams raise complex questions about the possible limits of free speech, especially for students who, as athletes, are often seen as representing the institution.


The chapter’s final selection by professor Catherine Nolan-Ferrell narrates how the issues raised in selections in this chapter played out in her classroom during and after the presidential election of 2016 at the University of Texas at San Antonio, where nearly half the students identify as Latino. Writing for an audience of professors, Nolan-Ferrell describes how she and her students sought to live in and learn from the tensions described by Palfrey in the chapter’s opening selection. She demonstrates the complex ways in which teaching and learning in classrooms are highly contextualized rhetorical acts, providing multiple opportunities for examining and applying the concepts taught throughout Everything’s an Argument.










John Palfrey (1972– ) is an educator, currently serving as Head of School at Andover Academy, and legal scholar, having served as executive director of Harvard University’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society from 2002 to 2008. An authority on law and new media, he is a strong advocate for Internet freedom. This selection comes from the introduction to Palfrey’s 2017 book, Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces: Diversity and Free Expression in Education. Here, Palfrey is arguing that “free expression and diversity are essential components of democracy in the twenty-first century” and that that two are ultimately compatible despite frequently being set in opposition to one another. As you read this academic argument, pay careful attention to how Palfrey structures it, particularly the ways he anticipates alternative positions and seeks to respond to them respectfully.





Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces




John Palfrey (1972– ) is an educator, currently serving as Head of School at Andover Academy, and legal scholar, having served as executive director of Harvard University’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society from 2002 to 2008. An authority on law and new media, he is a strong advocate for Internet freedom. This selection comes from the introduction to Palfrey’s 2017 book, Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces: Diversity and Free Expression in Education. Here, Palfrey is arguing that “free expression and diversity are essential components of democracy in the twenty-first century” and that that two are ultimately compatible despite frequently being set in opposition to one another. As you read this academic argument, pay careful attention to how Palfrey structures it, particularly the ways he anticipates alternative positions and seeks to respond to them respectfully.



Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces




  1. Free expression and diversity are essential components of democracy in the twenty-first century. In the United States, our shared commitment to both principles, especially as they developed in the late twentieth century, ensures that a democracy and the world at large benefit from heterogeneity. These two concepts rely on and reinforce one another.


  1. The arguments in favor of diversity and free expression are not exactly the same, but neither are they unrelated. There are reasons for diversity that have little or nothing to do with free expression; and there are reasons for free expression that have little or nothing to do with diversity. The areas of overlap, though, are plentiful—and they are essential to finding the best path forward. At their essence, both of these ideals support democracy because they mean that societies are educating informed, engaged citizens and seeking to establish a sense of fair play and justice in political systems. While diversity and free expression are too often pitted against one another as competing values, they are more compatible than they are opposing.Education essay paper



  1. The American experiment at its best calls for diversity and free expression to coexist. That coexistence has not been easy, nor has it been all that successful, especially for those who have had less power. The American experience has been a lot easier for whites, males, Christians, heterosexuals, the able-bodied, and the wealthy in particular. And free expression has been interpreted in ways that have tended to support those in authority rather than all people equitably. These critiques of the American experiment are all grounded in historical truth. But it is also true that free expression can serve all of us. Diversity is about self-expression, learning from one another, working together in productive ways across differences, and in turn strengthening our democracy. Diversity that also encompasses and supports intellectual and academic freedom—without condoning hate speech—has enormous force, promise, and importance.


The American experiment

a description that reminds readers that America—and indeed, every country—is an experiment, one that can succeed or fail, depending on the actions of individuals.


a fairly, which may well not mean treating everyone the same.





  1. Our commitment to seeking the truth and making sound decisions, in intellectual communities and in the public sphere, relies on the coexistence of diversity and free expression. One of the reasons to have a diverse community—one in which we truly welcome adults and young people with a broad range of racial, class, ethnic, religious, cultural, and political backgrounds, as well as people with a range of gender and sexual orientations—is that they bring various viewpoints that can help a community reach good, moral, and truthful decisions. This range of viewpoints also helps communities reach just decisions that a broad range of people will believe to be legitimate.


  1. As one example, consider the field of journalism and the need for a diverse corps of reporters to serve a multicultural democracy well. Among other things, a democracy depends on a strong, independent field of journalism to function effectively. Journalism enables the public to stay informed about crucial issues in such a way that the people may determine their own best interests. Journalism offers plentiful examples of this concurrent need for diversity and free expression in support of democracy. A well-trained, professional team of journalists—even if they all come from one racial background, say all Latino/Latina—may be able to cover the stories of a large and complex city with a reasonable degree of accuracy. But getting to the truth of what is really going on in, say, that city’s Chinatown section will be enhanced by someone on the staff coming from that neighborhood or from a Chinese-speaking background. At a minimum, that team of reporters would need to rely on sources and informants from Chinatown in order to tell that story with a fidelity to what actually occurred and what it meant. In either event, a diverse set of voices—whether as authors or sources—can lead to a deeper understanding of the truth in a complex environment than a homogeneous group of voices can. In turn, those who rely on this journalism have a greater likelihood of discerning their own true interests and acting accordingly as citizens.1Education essay paper


  1. Or consider the discipline of writing and studying U.S. history, which I teach to high school juniors and seniors at Andover. If virtually all the authorities writing prominent history books are white men (as they were for a long time), the likelihood is high that their narratives would extol the great male military and political leaders, not the women and many of the people of color who lived then. The idea behind diversifying the ranks of our history teachers and scholars is that a more diverse group of authors will tell a more complete—and correspondingly more truthful—version of what happened. The point is not to eliminate political and military history or the lives of “great men” from our narratives but rather to include social and cultural history—for instance, as it is told by women or people of color, unwelcome in political and military leadership for much of our history. The point is also not that only African Americans can write about the lives of those enslaved or what it was like to be subject to Jim Crow laws, but rather that having a more diverse group of teachers and authors results in a broader range of perspectives. As the professoriate continues to become more diverse, the narratives that we teach in history are becoming.



the group of people who teach at colleges and universities.






  1. Free expression, likewise, enables us to find the truth. If certain views are unwelcome or barred, then the likelihood that societies will find or embrace the truth diminishes. The extreme case is an authoritarian regime—for instance, in North Korea—where dissent is nearly impossible and the free flow of ideas is nonexistent. If criticism of political figures, whether accurate or not, is disallowed or strongly discouraged—as it is, for instance, in present-day Turkey, Russia, or Thailand—then the likelihood that the truth about their activities will emerge is much lower. When Saddam Hussein received 100 percent of the votes cast in the election of 2002—all 11,445,638 of them—one can reasonably infer that the Iraqi people were not free to discuss the potential shortcomings of the next Hussein administration.2 In the case of the urban journalists, free expression supports understanding of the real dynamics at play in Chinatown. In the case of the historians, free expression enables broader consideration of events and patterns that had previously lain uncovered—and that may have been inconvenient to unearth, discuss, and publish. Without commitment to free expression, the truth is much less likely to emerge. Without a route to the truth, the likelihood of good policy decisions, fair dealing with communities, and just outcomes of disputes is much lower.




  1. Diversity and free expression are linked, too, as principles that lead to higher levels of equity and fairness. The success of these ideals provides legitimacy for a democratic system. One reason to pursue a diverse environment, especially in a school or university setting, is to ensure that every young person has a roughly equal chance at the positive gains possible through education. If a school admits only young people of a single race, gender, ethnicity, faith, sexuality, or type of ability, then the opportunities at that school are not equitably afforded to those with other characteristics. In a knowledge-dominated economy, access to the benefits of education is of fundamental importance. Diversity initiatives—including but not limited to affirmative action policies—aim to ensure that the inequities of the past are not paid for in the future. These commitments ensure that every member of an academic environment feels and is valued for what they offer to the community and can accomplish while in school and afterward. The benefits of addressing inequity on campus connect directly to the degree of equality in the polity at large.


  1. Free expression, in its purest form, is also a driver of equity and justice. Free expression means that no voice is categorically entitled to greater freedom than any other. At the level of principle, freedom of expression is even-handed: it means that the color of one’s skin, or faith, or sexuality should not be a bar to expressing one’s point of view, participating in civic life through speech, and so forth. In practice, in most societies, this form of equity has rarely existed: some people are able to speak louder and more freely than others.


  1. Free expression is linked to a series of other freedoms with similar connections to equity. In the context of the United States, these freedoms are enshrined in the First Amendment to the Constitution: the right to free speech and a free press, the right to assemble peaceably, and the right to religious beliefs. Alongside the right to free expression, these other rights also protect those who might otherwise suffer persecution: the unpopular minority group has the right to come together peaceably in a community, or to pursue their faith, or to publish their views through a specialized press, or to seek redress from the government. Taken together, these rights have great force on behalf of an equitable society.Education essay paper





  1. The matter, of course, is not as simple as saying that diversity and free expression are mutually supportive concepts, on campus and in society at large. There are serious theoretical arguments to the contrary. There are hard cases that make these principles difficult to reconcile. The hardest cases, customarily involving hate speech, require balancing of competing interests that can leave no one happy.



  1. The most forceful argument, expressed from the political left, against my view that these two principles should coexist comes with the (truthful) claim that the right to free expression arose in the context of inequality. The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, for instance, was drafted by white, powerful men of European descent—many of whom enslaved their fellow Americans. Moreover, the interpretation of the right of free expression in the United States has been historically carried out by and large by male judges, often white and well off. Given this history, the right to free expression has been a tool of empowered people, not those who have been marginalized. As such, this counterargument goes, the right to free expression is flawed and less worthy of support than diversity, equity, and inclusion, especially where these two values conflict. While I acknowledge the force of this argument, I think it is less compelling than the claim that the two principles, in a more equitable historical moment, can and should be upheld in common.


  1. Other counterarguments take issue with either the specific application of free expression or diversity or both. It is one thing to make a broad claim about the importance of diversity and free expression coexisting; it is quite another to determine how best to apply them in an actual society.



  1. Free expression, for instance, evokes a range of possible policies, from one in which truly “anything goes” to the constrained version of free expression (which I favor) that is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution. This latter vision of free expression calls for limits to free expression in certain circumstances, known as “time, place, and manner” restrictions. Gender and racial harassment, fighting words, obscenity, and libel, for instance, are not protected speech even under the First Amendment. In the context of a campus, the limits to free expression often take another form: disallowing students from using hate speech targeted at another student, for instance. None of these types of restrictions on free expression would bar citizens or students from expressing a political opinion, however unpopular, as long as it does not target or put at risk another person. While some disagree with the idea of any restrictions on free expression, others wish for speech restrictions to further limit or ban certain additional forms of speech.



“time, place, and manner” restrictions

the categories of restrictions that can, under current federal law, be placed on free speech provided they are content neutral. They are narrowly tailored, and they leave open alternative means of expression. Thus, assuming these conditions are met, a school could likely legally limit free speech (or certain kinds of free speech) to certain times (e.g., not on Sunday), certain places (e.g., a free speech zone), or certain manners (e.g., no PA systems), although it would need to be able to justify the need for doing so. The restrictions are from the ruling Linmark Associates, Inc. v. Township of Willingboro, 431 U.S. 85 (1977).



  1. A similar counterargument might take issue with the forms of diversity that I favor in this book. As in the case of free expression, the views fall along a broad spectrum. On the one end, diversity extends to a strong form of equality and inclusion, brought about by affirmative policies intended to accomplish what proponents refer to as “social justice.” On the other end of the spectrum falls extreme xenophobia—whether expressed by white supremacists or by those who express hatred toward others from a religious viewpoint. For the purposes of this argument, I favor a form of diversity that makes good on the promises of the American ideal: a nation that invites those from all over the world to form a community together, representing a range of backgrounds and viewpoints. On campuses, this ideal means seeking young people from all over the country and the world, from all races, ethnicities, faith backgrounds, sexual orientations, with a range of abilities, and from families with different political viewpoints. Here, too, there are, and must be, restrictions of various sorts. A nation must limit those who can immigrate in certain ways in order to avoid systems being overwhelmed by the sheer number of residents; similarly, enrollment on a campus ought to be limited to a number of students who can in fact thrive in that particular learning environment. Some might agree that this definition of diversity is too generous; others might oppose the limits I suggest or favor more radical policies to accomplish the goals of diversity, equity, and inclusion.Education essay paper



irrational fear or hatred of strangers and, by extension, those from other countries or ethnic groups (Greek, xenos [stranger] + phobos [fear]).





  1. The hardest theoretical problem in holding these two ideals together is not one of definition, as thorny as that can be—it has to do with a paradox at the heart of this combination. One goal of diversity, equity, and inclusion—taken together—is tolerance. These ideals call for a community to enable all members to enjoy equal privileges. This notion of equity is especially hard to accomplish in environments that have been the least equal in the past—for instance, campuses that have only recently been opened to those of a certain gender or race, where intolerance has been the norm for a long time. The paradox becomes evident when someone does not believe in tolerance. The belief they hold—or the expression they wish to convey freely—is that the very idea of tolerance is wrong.



apparent contradiction that can be resolved so that no contradiction, in fact, exists.



  1. Must a community tolerate intolerance? It is this hard problem that presented itself on so many campuses in the fall of 2015 and again in the presidential election of 2016, and that will remain with us for the foreseeable future. Some campus activists argue for no as an answer to that question. From my perspective, the answer is yes, at least to some extent. Tolerance must extend not only to those who believe in tolerance but also to those who do not. In a democratic system at large, we give votes regardless of a person’s viewpoint. As humans and communities, we learn when we are presented with viewpoints different from our own.


  1. The difficulty with this idea—and the primary shortcoming of the view that we must tolerate some degree of intolerant speech—is that the costs of such tolerance will be borne disproportionately by those who are the targets of the intolerance. In America, those people are likely the same people whose forebears have been the targets of intolerance in the past: people of color, women, those who identify as LGBTQIA+, those who do not identify squarely on the cis-gendered binary (female or male), and those with different abilities. This argument—that we ought to hold diversity and free expression as mutually reinforcing principles—is at its most vulnerable when we consider the disproportionality of the costs of extreme tolerance.




umbrella term including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and others who do not identify with the heterosexual and cis-gendered majority.



having a gender identity that corresponds with the sex one was assigned at birth.


  1. There are ways to mitigate this problem, though it may be a long time (or a rare place) before the problem is fully addressed. The roots of discrimination are long and run deep; they are not easily pulled out of any soil, without trace or likelihood of regrowth.


  1. One form of mitigation is to limit free expression in specific ways. There must be a point at which the tolerant should not have to tolerate the intolerant. One limitation, sensibly included in campus policies, is to disallow hate speech personally directed at an individual. If a member of the community directs hate speech at another individual (rather than at a group), the speech can be subject to restriction and the speaker to disciplinary measures or other recourse. Specific campuses or communities might have narrowly tailored rules along these lines to protect those most vulnerable. It is easy to imagine that rules at a school for young children would be even more protective in this respect than the rules at a high school or those at a university, given the different educational aims of these types of institutions and different maturity levels of their students.



  1. Where a speaker expresses a general political viewpoint, communities must seek to tolerate these expressions, even if she or he preaches something inconsistent with the majority viewpoint on campus. If this political speech is intolerant toward some community members, the response should be to address this intolerant viewpoint with more speech. An affirmative obligation to speak up falls on those who oppose the position. In a civic context, it is imperative that citizens and political leaders speak up to defend the rights of all people in the community. This burden must not fall just on those threatened by the speech; those who already feel the most marginalized, undervalued, or invisible in communities may find it hard to voice their concerns. The burden ought to fall less on those directly affected and more on those who are in the favored position. In the campus context, those representing the institution itself—a college president, a university board chair, or a school principal—ought to establish a point of view that favors tolerance, diversity, equity, and inclusion over hate and intolerance. The best approach for the long run is for the truthful, positive, values-driven viewpoint to be given the chance to win out. The stronger argument should prove more sustainable and more broadly embraced over time if it is contested than if it is merely insisted on without interrogation. To impose a rule against the less tolerant political viewpoint, or to ban that viewpoint from the commons, would have high costs in the long run, but so too does tolerating certain hateful speech on campuses.






  1. Alex Garcia, “Why Diversity in Media Matters in Making Free Speech Really Free,” Medium,


  1. “Saddam Wins ‘100% of Vote,’” BBC News, October 16, 2002, essay paper


PowerPoint Presentation essay paper

PowerPoint Presentation essay paper


Unit VIII PowerPoint Presentation

MobileGo Project Recovery

The project management office or project office (PMO) is concerned that the MobileGo project is behind schedule and in danger of being late. Assume that a project meeting has been scheduled so that you and your project team can propose a course of action to reduce the project schedule. The PMO has provided your team with project simulation data spreadsheet.

To prepare for this PMO meeting, carry out the following:

  1. Analyze the data provided in the spreadsheet, and calculate at least two options for crashing the schedule.
  2. Identify likely risks associated with your revised schedule as well as your strategy for their mitigation.
  3. Evaluate concerns associated with the motivation of the team given the increase in project complexity, the additional

overtime, and the high-pressure environment that the team is likely to face.

  1. Explain the steps you will take as project manager to hold the team together and keep it functioning despite the PowerPoint Presentation essay paper


Complete the crash calculations and options in a Word or Excel document, and submit it for grading. Additionally, you will create a PowerPoint presentation of at least 10 slides that explains your crash plan as well as your overall plan to successfully lead the team to the finish line.

Use at least one outside source to support your recommendations for improvement. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations following proper APA Style.

You must either use speaker notes or audio to fully explain your slides. Be sure to elaborate in your speaker notes or audio; do not simply repeat the text from your slides. PowerPoint Presentation essay paper

APA Guidelines

The application of the APA writing style shall be practical, functional, and appropriate to each academic level, with the primary purpose being the documentation (citation) of sources. CSU requires that students use APA style for certain papers and projects. Students should always carefully read and follow assignment directions and review the associated grading rubric when available. The CSU Citation Guide includes examples and sample papers and provides information on how to contact the CSU Writing Center. PowerPoint Presentation essay paper


COVID-19 essay paper

COVID-19 essay paper

Moral Distress for Nursing

Many nurses are very concerned about what lies in the future of their careers. Each generation has their challenges, but this generation will probably always remember COVID-19. As nurses, we had to reflect on what happened during those days and we needed to soul search because of what we had to confront as nurses. Some of you are on the front lines of this pandemic taking care of patients that are affected.COVID-19 essay paper


  1. Go to the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) website and read about moral distress.
  2. Please share a couple of experiences that you may have had or that you may imagine that you would have caring for a patient with COVID-19
    • Example: It really disturbs me that a person that is dying cannot communicate with their family. As a proponent of palliative care and hospice and all the ideas connected to this I am adamantly against any person going through the dying process without family present. This has really disturbed me to the point that I am personally dealing with feelings of distress that I cannot come up with an answer.COVID-19 essay paper
  3. Distinguish between moral distress, burnout and compassion fatigue. Classify the example that is given above.
  4. Read the AACN Position Statement: Moral Distress in Times of Crisis. Comment on the AACN Position Statement. Do you believe the same things about moral distress. What do you believe?
  5. Your post should:
    • Answer the questions as thoroughly and concisely as possible.
    • Be sure to reference any works that you utilize in answering the questions (Be sure that references are in APA format).COVID-19 essay paper

health care essay paper

health care essay paper


  1. Choose from one of the following topics:
    1. Nursing during an epidemic, pandemic or natural disaster across the country or around the globe
    2. Social media influences on health or health care delivery
    3. The effect of the media on nursing image. How can nurses educate the public and help portray the true image of nursing?
    4. The prevalence and impact of substance abuse among nurses (impaired nursing)
    5. Impact of collective bargaining on the nursing profession
    6. Impact of workplace harassment and violence on the nursing profession
    7. You may select from ONE of the following technological advances and discuss its impact on patient outcomes:
      1. Telehealth technology
      2. Health applications
      3. Health-related/electronic wearableshealth care essay paper
  2. PPT Presentation will have 8-10 slides, NOT including the title and reference slides. You will also need to include graphics to make your slides interesting.
  3. You are to create bullet points for each slide, not including the title and reference slides. Include speaker notes for each slide by including 4-5 sentences to address the bulleted items on each slide. Please follow APA style and include citations in your speaker notes.
  4. Including a minimum of 4-5 peer research articles as references in the presentation. All research articles needs to be within 5 years from today’s date. No blog, chat, other university or Wikipedia information allowed in presentation.  The PowerPoint presentation must follow APA style.
  5. Describe in detail your plan for how you would lobby your legislators or local government for funding and support for your chosen current issue or trend.
  6. Include the following elements in your presentation:
    1. How will the topic impact your role as a nurse in nursing workforce or clinical setting?
    2. Current relevance of the topic
    3. How your topic is integrated and used in clinical practice

You will need to follow these steps below for saving your PowerPoint so that your speaker notes are visible:  health care essay paper

  1. Open your PPT and go to “file” in top left corner.
  2. Click “print” option. Make sure “print all slides” and “print slides with notes” is selected.
  3. Go to “Save As” on the left hand side and be sure you save as a PDF.
  4. Under your save as selection, click “more options”. Select the “Options” button and click the “Publish What” pull-down and then select “Notes Pages.” (If you click slides it will not show the speaker notes)
  5. Click “OK.”
  6. Complete your selection process by checking “Open file after publishing” and selecting the “Optimize for: ‘Standard’ and ‘Minimum Size’” choices.
  7. Click on “Save” next to the “Tools” button at the bottom of the care essay paper

Bibliography essay paper

Bibliography essay paper


Introduction, Thesis Statement, and Annotated Bibliography

[WLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

It is important for your project this week that your annotations be complete. This means that they should have a full summary of each article, plus a discussion of the authority, credibility, and data of each article. Authority means that the source has expertise in the article’s subject. Credibility means that the source provides grounds for believing the argument it makes. Data means the specific evidence used in the source. Bibliography essay paper


Prepare: Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review the Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.) and Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.) web pages, and Evaluating Sources (Links to an external site.) and Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.) tutorials.

Reflect: Reflect back on the Week 1 discussion in which you shared with the class the global societal issue that you would like to further address. Explore critical insights that were shared by your peers and/or your instructor on the topic chosen and begin your search for scholarly sources with those insights in mind.

Write: For this assignment, review the Annotated Bibliography Formatting Guidelines  Download Annotated Bibliography Formatting Guidelinesand address the following prompts:

  • Introductory paragraph to topic (refer to the Final Paper guidelines for your topic selection).
    • Write an introductory paragraph with at least 150 words that clearly explains the topic, the importance of further research, and ethical implications.
  • Thesis statement.
    • Write a direct and concise thesis statement, which will become the solution to the problem that you will argue or prove in the Week 5 Final Paper. (A thesis statement should be a concise, declarative statement. The thesis statement must appear at the end of the introductory paragraph.)
  • Annotated bibliography.
    • Develop an annotated bibliography to indicate the quality of the sources you have read.
    • Summarize in your own words how the source contributes to the solution of the global societal issue for each annotation.
    • Address fully the purpose, content, evidence, and relation to other sources you found on this topic (your annotation should be one to two paragraphs long—150 words or more.
    • Include no less than five scholarly sources in the annotated bibliography that will be used to support the major points of the Final Paper.
    • Demonstrate critical thinking skills by accurately interpreting evidence used to support various positions of the topic. Bibliography essay paper


The Introduction, Thesis Statement, and Annotated Bibliography


CREDIT essay paper

CREDIT essay paper


A records receivable maturing report is a record that shows the neglected receipt offsets alongside the length for which they’ve been exceptional. This report assists organizations with recognizing solicitations that are open and permits them to keep on top of slow paying clients.

What Is the Aging of Accounts Receivable Method?

In bookkeeping, maturing of records receivable alludes to the strategy for arranging the receivables by the due date to appraise the terrible obligations cost to the business.

Accounts receivables emerge when the business gives labor and products on a sound representative for the clients. For instance, you might permit clients to pay products 30 days after they are conveyed. They address a resource for the business.

To distinguish the typical period of receivables and recognize likely misfortunes from clients, organizations consistently set up the records receivable maturing report. This permits them to gather these bills straightaway to move the cash into the financial balance. CREDIT essay paper

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The records receivable maturing report will list every client’s exceptional equilibrium. It is then arranged into sections, for example, Current, 1-30 days past due, 31-60 days past due, 61-90 days past due, 91-120 days past due, and 120+ days past due.

What Is the Aging Schedule?

The maturing plan is a table that shows the connection between the neglected solicitations and bills of a business with their individual due dates. It’s called maturing plan on the grounds that the records receivables are separated into age classifications. It shows the absolute records receivable equilibrium that have been extraordinary for determined timeframes.

The maturing plan records debt claims that are under 30 days old, under 45 days old or more/under 90 days old. This is utilized for figuring out which of its clients are paying on time and may likewise be used for income assessment.

In this report, you’ll track down a rundown of each and every contact with the aggregate sum due at the base, coordinated by how much days the sum has been expected. Most bookkeeping programming bundles assist you with setting up this maturing plan naturally and furthermore permit you to send out the rundown to Excel or PDF.

How Are Aging Schedules Used?


The maturing plan is utilized to distinguish clients that are late in paying their solicitations. Assuming the majority of the past due sum is inferable from a solitary client, the business can do whatever it may take to guarantee that the client’s record is gathered speedily.

Assuming there are a few clients with past due sums that reach out past 60 days, it might flag the need to fix the credit strategy towards the current and new clients.


The maturing plan likewise recognizes any new changes and spot issues in records of sales. This can give the essential solutions to safeguard your business from income issues. CREDIT essay paper

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The records receivable maturing technique is utilized to assess how much uncollectable obligations which incorporates the inexact measure of the receivables that may not be gathered.

This is utilized as a consummation equilibrium of stipend for dubious records.

While the rate is different for each gathering and depends on previous experience and current monetary circumstances, the overall principle of thumb is that the more extended a record receivable remaining parts extraordinary, the less are the possibilities of its assortment.

Toward the finish of each bookkeeping period, the changing section ought to be made in the overall diary to record terrible obligations cost. Figure the aggregate sum of assessed uncollectible and afterward make the changing passage by charging the awful obligations business ledger and crediting stipend for suspicious records.

Why Is Accounts Receivable Aging Report Important?

Here are a few advantages that the records receivable maturing reports give:

· Contact clients at ordinary stretches so they realize you’re on top of your charging and assortment process

· Assess installment terms with providers and roll out essential improvements

· Disavow clients who consistently battle to pay their solicitations on time, which thusly can prompt income issues for the business

· Quit giving labor and products before late installment turns into an issue and you need to discount terrible obligations

· Assuming that you choose to factor your remarkable solicitations as a supporting instrument, one of the archives your calculating organization will require is a records receivable maturing report. It is utilized to assist with deciding the considering rate.

Without a records receivable maturing report, it very well may be challenging to keep a sound income and distinguish possibly terrible credit dangers to your business. While producing the records receivable maturing report, try to incorporate the client data, status of assortment, aggregate sum extraordinary and the monetary history of every client.

The assignment is simpler when you use bookkeeping programming that permits you to modify client settings like sending programmed installment updates for explicit clients, indicating the spans to send the updates, and the capacity to incorporate a customized message. CREDIT essay paper